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Janitorial Services in Plymouth, MI

Quiz: Understanding Hospital-Acquired Infections

During the 1830s, hospitalism was a term used to identify a growing problem in hospitals throughout northern Europe. It referred to diseases contracted by patients because of their stay in a hospital. Health officials at that time believed hospitalism was caused by poor ventilation; few believed in germs or cross contamination. Today, hospitalism is known as nosocomial or hospital-associated (or -acquired) infections (HAIs). We now know that along with other measures, hygienic cleaning can help prevent these illnesses.

The following short quiz is designed to test your knowledge of HAIs. After all, the more cleaning we know about HAIs, the better we will be able to prevent them. Take the test and then check your answers below:

  1. About how many people acquire HAIs in the U.S. each year?
    1. 100,000
    2. 500,000
    3. 1 million
    4. 2 million
  2. What are the total costs of treating HAI patients each year in the U.S.?
    1. Less than US$3 billion
    2. About $3 billion
    3. About $4 billion
    4. More than $4 billion
  3. What is the number of extra days a patient typically stays in a hospital as a result of an HAI?
    1. Five
    2. 10
    3. 20
    4. More than 20
  4. What is the average number of patients that die each year in the U.S. due to HAIs?
    1. 5,000
    2. 10,000
    3. 20,000
    4. 30,000
    5. More than 50,000
  5. Where are HAIs ranked among causes of death in the U.S.?
    1. 10th
    2. 12th
    3. Fourth
    4. Fifth
  6. What percentages of HAI cases are preventable?
    1. All
    2. 70 percent
    3. 50 percent
    4. About 30 percent


  1. D
  2. D
  3. C
  4. E
  5. C
  6. B



Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.

Janitorial Services in Bloomfield Hills, MI

Cleaning for Health

If there is one expression that has become the motto, if not the marching orders, of today’s professional cleaning industry, it is “cleaning for health.” This all-important phrase was likely first coined by Dr. Michael Berry in his precedent-setting book, Protecting the Built Environment: Cleaning for Health. Since then, this concept has become powerful and significant—and rightly so.

Clean Evolution

At one time, our main purpose was to clean for appearance. But after Berry’s book was published, our industry was forced to reevaluate its primary function. We have now realized that our work and what we do for our end-customers is far more meaningful than just keeping floors shiny, counters wiped off, and carpets vacuumed. What we do helps keep people healthy.

While these changes were taking place, cleaning was also moving toward center stage in our industry. Cleaning to protect human health means reducing the negative impact cleaning can have on the health of cleaning workers and building occupants as well as protecting the environment. After all, what’s the point of having clean, sterile surfaces if people get sick because of the cleaning products used?

Around this same time, frightening public health scares, such as SARS, norovirus, MRSA, and other diseases, became prominent in headlines and news coverage throughout the world. Doctors and public health professionals were unable to stop the spread of these diseases and infections with vaccines or medications. Instead, cleaning professionals were called upon to provide health-based solutions aimed toward minimizing outbreaks and cross-contamination. In fact, one presenter at a Cleaning Industry Research Institute—CIRI—event even suggested that due to the connections between cleaning and health, the professional cleaning industry should be placed under the umbrella of the health care industry.

The link between cleaning and protecting human health is now a well-established part of the cleaning industry, lifting both our industry’s image and confidence and giving cleaning professionals a definite role and purpose beyond just tidying up facilities. However, this new role has also caused us to face a serious dilemma. How can we tell if we are cleaning to protect human health? As we all know, appearances can be deceiving when it comes to cleanliness. Fortunately, evolving methodologies can prove that visually clean surfaces are safe, healthy, and hygienically clean.



Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.

Commercial Cleaning in Troy, MI

A Word on Mats


To help keep floors cleaner for longer one of the first things that need to be checked are the mats to make sure they they are a help and not a hindrance.

Matting is one of the major things to keep floors cleaner for longer. Matting is key but throwing a three by five mat at an entrance way is not going to get enough dirt off people’s shoes. It is important to focus on both indoor and outdoor matting and ensure that they have the right type of mats, as well as the right size mats to effectively prevent soil from entering the building.

It all begins at the entrance of the facility. With a vast majority of debris in a building coming in through the entrances, proper matting is the first line of defense to keeping much of the dirt from being tracked further into the building. Proper matting can eliminate up to 90% of dirt and debris from entering the building.

Using effective bi-level scrapping mats in conjunction with wiper mats at minimum distances of 15 to 20 feet greatly reduces that dirt and debris, allowing for less wear and tear of the floor surface.

Mats, like floors need to be maintained well. They need to be kept clean and vacuumed. A lot of times you’ll see mats that are worn out and or neglected. This will cause an increase in the dirt inside the building.


Source: Contracting Profits Magazine Apr 2013
Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.

Janitorial Services in Canton, MI

How to Care for Rubber Floors

Many facilities—especially schools and institutional buildings—are now installing what are termed sustainable hard-surface floor coverings made from bamboo, cork, certified or reclaimed hardwood, or engineered flooring (derived from wood chips and other materials). These properties tend to be large, busy, and multi-use buildings, and it is often difficult to find one type of sustainable floor that meets a facility’s diverse needs. Further, just as with other types of floor coverings, some sustainable floors are more durable, easier to clean and maintain, more slip-resistant, and more visually pleasing than others.

As summer approaches, one sustainable floor type deserves special consideration. Rubber flooring is finding more acceptance and being installed in more facilities, indoors as well as outside. This type of flooring is becoming more popular in schools, institutions, gyms, and pool areas thanks to the way it holds up in all types of situations including heat, humidity, and wet conditions. Rubber floors are now offered in a variety of designs and colors for all types of locations, and high-quality rubber floors often are easier to maintain, are more durable, and last longer than many other floor types—sustainable or conventional.

What makes rubber floors sustainable depends on how they are manufactured. Some rubber floors are made from renewable natural rubber extracted from rubber trees. The floors may also contain fillers, supplements, and coloring derived from other sustainable sources. Additionally, recycled rubber flooring typically is made from old tires and other rubber products, helping to minimize the amount of rubber that ends up in landfills.

Another factor that makes rubber a sustainable floor covering is life-cycle cost. A study by Sue Tartaglio of the International Interior Design Association compared a dozen frequently used synthetic and natural flooring products and found that rubber is the most cost-competitive resilient floor option. Tartaglio’s study took into consideration the initial purchase price, the cost of installation, and the costs of cleaning and maintenance over a 15-year period. In addition, the life cycle of most rubber floors is about 30 years, which adds to their long-term value. Depending on how the flooring is manufactured, rubber flooring tends to have lower volatile organic compound— or VOC—emissions than many other types of floors. This helps protect indoor air quality, which is of prime concern especially in schools and institutional facilities.

Cleaning and Care

Even with all their benefits, maintaining rubber flooring may be more complicated than originally believed. And with summer around the corner, the biggest season of the year for all types of restorative floor care, now is the perfect time to discuss how to effectively clean and maintain rubber floors.

Dust mopping typically is not advised for daily cleaning of rubber floors because they are often studded. And while the studded design of rubber floors serves an important purpose—helping to prevent slips, trips, and falls—the drawback is that moisture and soils can build up around the studs. A backpack vacuum cleaner can remove dry dust and soils surrounding the studs that a dust mop might not be able to remove. This is also more protective of indoor air quality, as no dust is stirred up into the air, and a HEPA-filter backpack will keep dust and contaminants from being released as well.

For more restorative cleaning, rubber floors are best cleaned with what are referred to as hard-surface tools. These are wands that are often used in conjunction with dual-surface carpet extractors to generate considerable pressure per square inch and remove soils. The dislodged dirt can then be vacuumed up, leaving the rubber flooring clean, dry, and ready for foot traffic.

You may consider using cleaning solutions for these hard-surface tools for even stronger cleaning power. In most cases, a neutral cleaner is all that is necessary, and several are green-certified. However, if the floor is installed around a pool, locker room, health care facility, or other location where there are increased concerns about bacteria, a sanitizer or disinfectant can be used. Be sure to read label instructions regarding dilution and dwell time, and check that the chemical is safe for rubber floors. An astute distributor should be able to provide valuable guidance in this regard.

With new colors, innovative designs, and the fact that many types are now considered both green and sustainable, cleaning professionals can expect to see more rubber floors in all types of facilities. Cleaned and maintained properly, a rubber floor can prove to be a high-quality, good-looking investment welcomed in all types of properties for many years to come.



Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.


Janitorial Services in Detroit, MI

Preventing Infections in Health Care Facilities

  Health care-associated infections (HAIs) continue to plague facilities in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that one out of every 20 patients will become infected with an HAI. [1]

  Two of the most troublesome HAIs that health care facilities face include norovirus, a pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and food poisoning, and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), a spore-forming bacterium that causes symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. These infections spread rapidly through populations and can cost facilities thousands of additional dollars to contain. However, there are prevention mechanisms and protocols available to help minimize outbreaks.

  HAI prevention should be a priority for health care staff working in all types of facilities including hospitals, outpatient, and long-term care facilities. Prevention is not only in the best interest of the patients, but health care staff as well.

  PROimage Facility Services Cleaning staff are knowledgeable about proper hand hygiene protocols, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, disease transmission, and cleaning and disinfection procedures for HAIs. Training and educating staff on these issues is a priority.

  The following tips and recommendations on how to prevent and manage C. difficile and norovirus outbreaks help to serve as a great primer on the importance of infection prevention and environmental surface disinfection in health care facilities. The important thing for health care cleaning staff to remember is that the standard activities of cleaning, selecting appropriate disinfectants, and monitoring practices all contribute to a safer, healthier patient environment.

C. difficile (Clostridium difficile)

  According to a recent CDC Vital Signs Report, C. difficile infections are at an all-time high and are linked to 14,000 deaths in the United States each year. A stronger germ strain also contributed to a 400 percent increase in C. difficile-related deaths between 2000 and 2007. [2]

  C. difficile can infect anyone, but older adults and those on antibiotics are most at risk. C. difficile spores are resilient and can survive on surfaces for months, allowing them to easily spread to others through contact with contaminated surfaces or health care workers’ hands.

  To help reduce the spread of C. difficile infections, each facility should have protocols in place that outline cleaning and disinfecting practices, recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered products to use, and assigned roles for personnel. Always use disinfecting products that are EPA-registered to kill C. difficile and follow the label instructions to keep the surface wet for the recommended amount of time.

The CDC also has six key steps to prevention, which are listed below.

CDC’s Six Steps to C. difficile Prevention [3]

  1. Prescribe and use antibiotics carefully. About 50 percent of all antibiotics given are not needed, unnecessarily raising the risk of C. difficile infections.

  2. Test for C. difficile when patients have diarrhea while on antibiotics or within several months of taking them.

  3. Isolate patients with C. difficile immediately.

  4. Wear gloves and gowns when treating patients with C. difficile, even during short visits. Hand sanitizer does not kill C. difficile, and hand washing may not be sufficient.

  5. Clean room surfaces with an approved, spore-killing disinfectant after a patient with C. difficile has been treated there.

  6. When a patient transfers, notify the new facility if the patient has a C. difficile infection.


  Recent study statistics from the February 2012 issue of the American Journal of Infection Control show that norovirus is the leading cause of HAI outbreaks. Norovirus is responsible for 18.2 percent of all infection outbreaks and 65 percent of ward closures in United States hospitals.

  Like C. difficile, norovirus is highly contagious, causes diarrhea in patients, and is transmitted to others through touching infected surfaces, eating contaminated food, or by having direct contact with a contaminated individual. Norovirus outbreaks are especially difficult to contain and control once a health care facility is contaminated.

  Maintaining a proactive disinfecting protocol against norovirus is extremely important for all health care facilities. Cleaning staff should work with their infection control departments to determine appropriate disinfecting and monitoring procedures that are best suited to their facility. Health care cleaning staff should be advised to use the proper protective equipment (gown and gloves), use EPA-registered disinfectants with a label claim to kill norovirus, and clean rooms and high-touch surface areas more frequently during a suspected norovirus outbreak. Follow the product manufacturer’s instructions and pay attention to how long a product needs to remain wet on a surface to kill norovirus.

The CDC also recommends the following procedures for prevention and disinfection against norovirus.

CDC Norovirus Prevention Tips [4,5]

Patients with suspected norovirus may be placed in private rooms or share rooms with other patients with the same infection.

  1. Follow hand-hygiene guidelines and carefully wash hands with soap and water after contact with patients with norovirus infection.
  2. Use gowns and gloves when in contact with or caring for patients who are symptomatic with norovirus.
  3. Routinely clean and disinfect high-touch patient surfaces and equipment with an EPA-approved product with a label claim for norovirus.
  4. Increase the frequency of cleaning and disinfection of patient care areas and frequently touched surfaces during outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis (e.g., increase ward/unit level cleaning twice daily to maintain cleanliness, with frequently touched surfaces cleaned and disinfected three times daily using EPA-approved products for health care settings).
  5. Frequently touched surfaces include—but are not limited to—commodes, toilets, faucets, hand/bed railing, telephones, door handles, computer equipment, and kitchen preparation surfaces.
  6. Remove and wash contaminated clothing or linens.
  7. Exclude health care workers who have symptoms consistent with norovirus from work.


[1] CDC. Healthcare-associated infections: The Burden. Retrieved from:

[2] CDC. March 2012. Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer: Retrieved from:

[3] CDC. March 2012. Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer. Retrieved from:

[4] CDC. Key Infection Control Recommendations for the Control of Norovirus Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings. Retrieved from:

[5] CDC. Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs): Norovirus in Healthcare Facilities. Retrieved from:

Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.

Janitorial Services in Warren, MI

Get Serious About Chemical Safety

 Because most janitorial industry professionals work with cleaning chemicals every day—both at work with customers and at home—some have developed a nonchalant attitude toward them. Plus, the general adoption of green cleaning has exacerbated this attitude in some cases because many cleaning professionals have the mistaken belief that green chemicals are always safe to use.

  It is true that when used properly, both conventional and green cleaning chemicals are relatively safe. However, these products are not always properly handled, and accidents can and do happen.

 The U.S. Department of Labor continues to classify cleaning and custodial work as high-risk jobs, mainly because of the many accidents involving chemicals that occur each year (Note: PROimage Facility Services has never had an accident involving chemicals). It is estimated that six out of every 100 custodians in the United States experience a job-related injury each year caused by exposure to cleaning chemicals (Note: PROimage Facility Services has had none in our many years of doing business). These often include eye injuries, many of which are irreversible. Other injuries are typically skin related (e.g., burns) or are the result of inhaling chemical fumes.

What makes us different?

 Ironically, green chemicals are sometimes even more dangerous than conventional chemicals because they are delivered in such highly concentrated forms. While being packaged in higher concentrations makes green chemicals more sustainable due to the inherent reduction in fuel, transportation, and packaging needs, it also makes them very powerful and therefore potentially dangerous.

Our chemicals enter your site already pre-diluted so our employees are never mixing chemicals or dealing with highly concentrated chemicals on site. This eliminates the possibility for a lot of the accidents mentioned above. That is just one of the things in our chemical safety program. Below is a brief overview of our chemical safety program.

Our Chemical Safety Program

  • We have complete records of all cleaning chemicals used, including container sizing and where they are stored, and the potential hazards of and precautions necessary for each specific chemical.

  • We maintain material safety data sheets (MSDS) for each chemical used.

  • Chemicals are stored in well-ventilated areas away from HVAC intake vents. This will prevent chemical fumes from spreading to other areas in a facility.

  • Bottles and containers clearly display safety signage in multiple languages or images that quickly conveys possible dangers and precautions related to the chemicals.


Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.

Janitorial Services in Dearborn, MI

Examining Particles and How our health is affected by these particles?

Our respiratory system consists of the nose throat and lungs. Most allergic reactions are caused by particles > 10μm. These large-size particles irritate mucous membranes in the cranial cavity.

 The pulmonary system’s natural defense mechanism usually clears them from the lungs. The epiglottis is a flap of tissue covering the trachea, it opens to allow breathing and closes to block organisms and matter in the mouth and throat from entering the respiratory tract.

  Smaller particles (<2.5μm) can move deep into the lungs and if not cleared naturally, the lungs can be scarred or the particles remain trapped, creating conditions for diseases like cancer.

  Most large particles can be cleaned effectively by vacuuming. However, there are some particles which aren’t effectively managed through vacuuming alone. The following table represents some of the particles which must be flushed out with a wet extraction cleaning system or shampoo system not a vacuum cleaner.These particles can build up over time in certain fabrics and carpets.

The cleaning process

A lot of these particles will end up on horizontal surfaces throughout a building. Daily surface cleaning with a disinfectant cleaner will take care of a lot of these particles. A disinfectant kills all pathogenic bacteria, with the exception of spores from a hard surface. Based off characteristics the hard surface disinfectant cleaners can be put into different classes. Probably the most important are:

1. QAC (Quaternary Ammonium Compound)

2. Phenolic Compounds

3. Chlorine Compounds

Quaternary Ammonium Compound

Quaternaries are recommended for most hard surface disinfectant applications. Quaternaries are usually formulated with nonionic detergents since they are incompatible with anionic detergents.

They have the unique quality of working best as disinfectants in the 9 to 10 ph range. The greater detergency efficacy also occurs in this pH range: the resultant product, therefore, is a detergent/disinfectant which combines the best of both.

Misuse and abuse of the alkaline ph detergent disinfectants with resultant damage to some floor waxes/finishes has led to the development of detergent/disinfectant formulations with a neutral or near neutral pH (industry neutral ph=6-9; bleach ph=12). Many of these pH products with not damage floor finishes if misused and abused.

Quaternaries, when diluted for use, are low in toxicity and irritation properties and are good broad spectrum disinfectants, capable of killing a wide variety of gram negative and gram positive bacteria, fungi and viruses. They do not contribute to objectionable odor problems. In fact, they have odor counteracting properties of their own. If properly formulated, the nonionic detergents can be synergistic with the quaternary disinfectants in terms of bactericidal effect.

Phenolic Compounds

Phenolic disinfectants, due to their chemical nature and mode of activity, function best at a pH range of 7 to 7. Phenolics are used to clean blood spills as part of the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard. Since phenolics are not compatible with nonionic or cationic detergents, they must be formulated with anionic surfactants or soap. Since hard surface cleaners are typically made with nonionics, phenolics tend to have less cleaning ability than quats.

Products containing a use solution pH of greater than 10 may attack a floor finish. One other disadvantage of most phenolic formulations i the strong phenolic odor. Another area of concern is the stability of phenolic disinfectants. Some detergents can inactivate phenolics


The most common Chlorine disinfectant is household bleach. Chlorine eliminates most viruses, bacteria, molds, and algae, but not bacterial spores. Chlorine compounds are good disinfectants on clean surfaces. Chlorine compounds are more active in warm water.Chlorinated compounds can irritate skin and damage clothing, rubber goods, and some metals. Chlorine-based disinfectants are generally compatible with soaps but should never be mixed with acids. Most chlorine solutions are unstable and lose activity over time.

Source: CM Cleanfax Magazine, Nov. 2010

Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.

Janitorial Services in Detroit, MI

Linoleum Floor Care Tips

Cleaning professionals may be a bit surprised to hear that linoleum floors—first introduced more than 120 years ago—are making a comeback. But while this flooring material used to be found mainly in homes and residential facilities, it is now becoming popular in commercial locations. The key reason for this trend is that many types of linoleum floors are considered a green or more sustainable floor covering option, especially when compared to the more traditional and very popular vinyl composite tile (VCT).

Vinyl is a synthetic product made of petrochemicals and other components, most of which are not sustainable. Linoleum, on the other hand, is typically made of a variety of ingredients including linseed oil, cork dust, tree resins, and wood flour (finely pulverized wood that is finer than sawdust), all of which are renewable resources. Linoleum has two other features that commercial property developers and owners appreciate: it is fire retardant and water resistant.*

Chemical Issues

Linoleum floors can be very sensitive to chemicals, especially the kinds of traditional cleaning chemicals used on VCT floors. In general, it’s best to use pH-neutral cleaning solutions following manufacturers’ recommended dilution ratios.

High-pH or high-alkalinity  cleaners can damage linoleum floors. In fact, frequent use can not only impact the look of the floor, but can also cause cracking, shrinking, and even discoloration. Additionally, using too much water to clean these floors can cause problems. Linoleum is installed in sheets, and there may be small openings between each sheet. Water can seep into and under these openings, which can result in mold and mildew and even cause the floor to rot.


Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.

Commercial Cleaning Detroit Michigan

Commercial Cleaning Detroit MichiganIf you would like professional commercial cleaning in Detroit, Michigan and surrounding areas, please call PROimage Facility Services at (248) 387-1977 today!

Benefits of hiring a commercial cleaning service in Detroit, Michigan:

Have you thought about the benefits of your business hiring a cleaning service? It could help your company save time. In addition, you would have a clean office on a regular basis each week. Here are four benefits of your business hiring a cleaning service.

You don’t have to worry about your office being clean.

This is the major advantage of hiring a cleaning service weekly so you don’t have to worry. You know that each week your office will be clean. If you don’t like to clean or don’t want to clean your office yourself or hire an employee then you have a perfect good reason to hire a cleaning business. You will be able to relax each week while the cleaning company cleans your office. You won’t have to be concerned about personally cleaning your office each week. You don’t have to hassle with cleaning your office each week since the cleaning company will do it all.

It saves your company time and saves additional money.

You don’t have to hire an employee, but yet you just hire an cleaning company weekly. It saves your company time each week. In addition, you won’t have to dish out extra money each week for an employee to clean the office. Cleaning your office won’t have to be on your mind each week. You could save even additional money by signing a contract with the cleaning company. Most companies usually give a discount with a year long contract.

Your office building will be even more healthy for you and your staff.

You and your staff will be healthy each week. You will notice the difference in having a clean office each week compared to having a messy office each week. Overall, it is healthy for everyone who works or visits to have a clean office. You will have less problems such as allergies due to most of the dust being gone out of your office.

It will impress your clients.

A clean office will always leave a good impression with your clients. If your office is clean each week then it shows that you care about your office looks to other people. The clients think that your company office is clean and that your company cares about being healthy. Your clients will brag to their friends and family including everyone else they know about how clean your office building is all the time. Most people do notice how clean an office building is on a regular basis.

If you would like more information about commercial cleaning in Detroit, Michigan and nearby areas, please contact PROimage Facility Services at (248) 387-1977 for more information.

Commercial Cleaning Services in Flint, MI

Health Care: Norovirus Is Leading Cause of Intestinal Disorders In American Kids

  The symptoms of gastroenteritis aren’t pretty, but at least doctors know what’s behind the wave of cases in recent years.

  According to a new study released by the Centers for Disease Control, norovirus sent nearly 1 million children under age five in the U.S. to the doctor or hospital  in 2009 and 2010. And treating those youngsters cost an estimated $273 million a year.

  Norovirus is often called the “stomach flu” or “food poisoning” since its symptoms include severe vomiting and diarrhea. According to the CDC, the virus, which inflames the lining of the stomach and intestines, causes 21 million cases of illness, 70,000 hospitalizations and 800 deaths in the U.S. annually. A little more than half of the cases are passed from person to person, and 20% are caused by contaminated food.

  Based on their latest findings, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, the researchers said an estimated 1 in 278 kids will be hospitalized for norovirus infection by the time they turn five, about 1 in 14 will visit an emergency room and 1 in 6 will receive out patient treatment.

  The estimates came from data involving more than 141,000 kids under age five who required medical attention for acute gastroenteritis between October 2008 and September 2010. Lab tests confirmed the presence of the norovirus. The virus was identified in 278 of the 1,295 cases of acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus, which is another cause of gastroenteritis, was identified in only 152. Infants infected with norovirus were more likely to be hospitalized and about 50% of the medical care visits from norovirus infections occurred in kids between six to 18 months.

  The surge in norovirus cases may be due in part to better control of rotavirus infection, for which children can be vaccinated. “Our study confirmed that medical visits for rotavirus illness have decreased,” said Dr. Daniel Payne, an epidemiologist in the Division of Viral Diseases at the Centers for Disease Controland Prevention in a statement. “Also, our study reinforces the success of the U.S. rotavirus vaccination program and also emphasizes the value of specific interventions to protect against norovirus illness.”

  There is no treatment for norovirus, other than bed rest and drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Most people recover between 24 hours to 48 hours.

  Work on a vaccine to protect against the virus is underway, and in March, when a new strain of norovirus was identified in the U.S., TIME spoke to Dr. John Treanor, chief of the Infectious Diseases Division at the University of Rochester Medical Center who is testing a vaccine developed by LigoCyte Pharmaceuticals:

  The shot contains a part of the norovirus’ outer layer, which they hope will generate a strong immune response in those who get immunized.

A vaccine would be critical for preventing the disease from escalating in populations; because it spreads so quickly, norovirus infections are difficult to contain. “You really only have to be exposed to a couple of viral particles to get sick,” says Treanor. “This makes it very contagious because when you have norovirus, you are dispersing literally millions of particles. When it only takes one or two to make the next person sick, it translates into very high contagiousness.”

  If successful the vaccine could significantly reduce the number of illnesses associated with the virus, and same millions in health care costs to treat dehydrated children. Until then, the CDC recommends washing your hands regularly, cleaning any infected or contaminated surfaces and laundry and if you or anyone around you is sick, and to wait two to three days after you recover before preparing food for anyone.


Contact PROimage Facility Services at (313) 387-1977 today! Your Facility’s Professional Image Is Our Business.